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Financial Terms beginning with O

OHLC Chart
An open-high-low-close chart is a type of chart typically used to illustrate movements in the price of a financial instrument over time. Each vertical line on the chart shows the price range over one unit of time, e.g., one day or one hour. Tick marks project from each side of the line indicating the opening price on the left, and the closing price for that time period on the right. The bars may be shown in different hues depending on whether prices rose or fell in that period.
OTC (Under Review)
The economic policy of the Barack Obama Administration was characterized by moderate tax increases on higher income Americans designed to fund healthcare reform, reduce the federal budget deficit, and improve income inequality. His first term included measures designed to address the Great Recession and Subprime mortgage crisis, which began in 2007. These included a major stimulus package, banking regulation, and comprehensive healthcare reform. As the economy improved and robust job creation continued during his second term, the Bush tax cuts were allowed to expire for the highest income taxpayers and a spending sequester was implemented, to further reduce the deficit back to typical historical levels. Towards the end of his tenure, the U.S. economy was nearing full employment such that the Federal Reserve began raising interest rates, real household income was nearing its pre-crisis peak, gas prices were very low, and GDP grew at a strong 3.5% in the third quarter of 2016.
Objective Probability
Obligation Bond
An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. There are also obligations in other normative contexts, such as obligations of etiquette, social obligations, religious and possibly in terms of politics, where obligations are requirements which must be fulfilled. These are generally legal obligations, which can incur a penalty for non-fulfilment, although certain people are obliged to carry out certain actions for other reasons as well, whether as a tradition or for social reasons.
Obsolescence Risk
Obsolete Inventory
Occupancy Fraud
Occupancy Rate
Occupational Labor Mobility
Ocean Bill Of Lading
October Effect
Odd Date
Odd Days Interest
Odd Lot Theory
Odd Lot
Odd Lotter
An odd lotter is an investor who purchases shares or other securities in small or unusual quantities. Stocks are typically traded in increments of 100 shares, a quantity known as a round lot or board lot. The cost of 100 shares of a security may be beyond the means of an individual investor, or may represent a larger investment than the investor wishes to make. Thus, the investor purchases an odd lot.
Odious Debt
In international law, odious debt, also known as illegitimate debt, is a legal doctrine that holds that the national debt incurred by a regime for purposes that do not serve the best interests of the nation, should not be enforceable. Such debts are, thus, considered by this doctrine to be personal debts of the regime that incurred them and not debts of the state. In some respects, the concept is analogous to the invalidity of contracts signed under coercion.
Off Balance Sheet (OBS)
Off Balance Sheet Financing
Off Board
Off Floor Order
Off Premise Banking
Off The Run Treasuries
Off The Run Treasury Yield Curve
Offensive Competitive Strategy
Offer In Compromise
The Offer in Compromise program, in the United States, is an Internal Revenue Service program under which allows qualified individuals with an unpaid tax debt to negotiate a settled amount that is less than the total owed to clear the debt. A taxpayer uses the checklist in the Form 656, Offer in Compromise, package to determine if the taxpayer is eligible for the offer in compromise program. The objective of the OIC program is to accept a compromise when acceptance is in the best interests of both the taxpayer and the government and promotes voluntary compliance with all future payment and filing requirements.
Offering Circular
An offering memorandum or offering circular is a type of prospectus for a bond or other security. Sometimes, this is also referred to as a prospectus, offering memorandum, or short OC. The OC represents one of the key selling..." The terms "offering memorandum", "OM", or "offering circular", "OC", are used instead of "prospectus" in certain situations, such as when the offering is not required to be registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Offering memoranda are needed when seeking securities identification numbers or listing on various global stock exchanges.
Offering Memorandum
An offering memorandum or offering circular is a type of prospectus for a bond or other security. Sometimes, this is also referred to as a prospectus, offering memorandum, or short OC. The OC represents one of the key selling..." The terms "offering memorandum", "OM", or "offering circular", "OC", are used instead of "prospectus" in certain situations, such as when the offering is not required to be registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Offering memoranda are needed when seeking securities identification numbers or listing on various global stock exchanges.
Offering Price
Ask price, also called offer price, offer, asking price, or simply ask, is the price a seller states she or he will accept.
Office Audit
Office Of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO)
Office Of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC)
Office Of The Comptroller Of The Currency (OCC)
Office Of The Superintendent Of Financial Institutions (OSFI)
Office Of Thrift Supervision (OTS)
Official Committee Of Equity Security Holders
An Official Committee of Equity Security Holders is a group of shareholders formed to represent a larger group of shareholders' interests in a company's bankruptcy proceedings.
Official Settlement Account
Official Staff Commentary
Official Strike
Offline Debit Card
Offset Mortgage
The term flexible mortgage refers to a residential mortgage loan that offers flexibility in the requirements to make monthly repayments. The flexible mortgage first appeared in Australia in the early 1990s, however it did not gain popularity until the late 1990s. This technique gained popularity in the US and UK recently due to the United States housing bubble.
Offsetting Transaction
Offshore Banking Unit (OBU)
Offshore Mutual Fund
Offshore Portfolio Investment Strategy (OPIS)
Offtake Agreement
Oil Field
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum from below ground. Because the oil reservoirs typically extend over a large area, possibly several hundred kilometres across, full exploitation entails multiple wells scattered across the area. In addition, there may be exploratory wells probing the edges, pipelines to transport the oil elsewhere, and support facilities.
Oil Initially In Place (OIIP)
Oil Pollution Act Of 1990
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 was passed by the 101st United States Congress and signed by President George H. W. Bush. It works to avoid oil spills from vessels and facilities by enforcing removal of spilled oil and assigning liability for the cost of cleanup and damage, requires specific operating procedures; defines responsible parties and financial liability; implements processes for measuring damages; specifies damages for which violators are liable; and establishes a fund for damages, cleanup, and removal costs. This statute has resulted in instrumental changes in the oil production, transportation, and distribution industries.
Oil Price to Natural Gas Ratio
Oil Refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products.
Oil Reserves
Oil reserves denote the amount of oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil. Hence reserves will change with the price, unlike oil resources, which include all oil that can be technically recovered at any price. Reserves may be for a well, for a reservoir, for a field, for a nation, or for the world. Different classifications of reserves are related to their degree of certainty.
Oil Sands
Oil sands, also known as tar sands, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurring mixture of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen. Natural bitumen deposits are reported in many countries, but in particular are found in extremely large quantities in Canada. Other large reserves are located in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Venezuela. The estimated worldwide deposits of oil are more than; the estimates include deposits that have not been discovered. Proven reserves of bitumen contain approximately 100 billion barrels, and total natural bitumen reserves are estimated at worldwide, of which, or 70.8%, are in Alberta, Canada.
Oil Services Industry ETF
Oil Stabilization Fund (Iran)
Okun's Law
Okun Gap
In economics, Okun's law is an empirically observed relationship between unemployment and losses in a country's production. The "gap version" states that for every 1% increase in the unemployment rate, a country's GDP will be roughly an additional 2% lower than its potential GDP. The "difference version" describes the relationship between quarterly changes in unemployment and quarterly changes in real GDP. The stability and usefulness of the law has been disputed.
Old Age, Survivors And Disability Insurance Program (OASDI)
Old Age And Survivors Insurance Trust Fund
Old Economy
Old Economy Village is a historic settlement in Ambridge, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States. Administered by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, it lies on the banks of the Ohio River and is surrounded by downtown Ambridge. The Village is the last of three settlements established by the Harmony Society in the United States. Established in 1824, it was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1966 under the name of "Old Economy."
Old Lady
An oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers. Oligopolies can result from various forms of collusion which reduce competition and lead to higher prices for consumers. Oligopoly has its own market structure.
An oligopsony is a market form in which the number of buyers is small while the number of sellers in theory could be large. This typically happens in a market for inputs where numerous suppliers are competing to sell their product to a small number of buyers. It contrasts with an oligopoly, where there are many buyers but few sellers. An oligopsony is a form of imperfect competition.
Oliver E. Williamson
Oliver Eaton Williamson is an American economist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Oman Investment Fund
The Makki Investment Fund is a sovereign wealth fund,established in 2006 in accordance with a Royal Decree of His Majesty the Sultan of Oman. The Fund makes medium to long-term investments, globally and domestically, to diversify the government of Oman's asset base and create a pool of sustainable cash flows for the Sultanate. Currently, the OIF's assets under management are estimated at approximately US$6 billion.
Oman Rial (OMR)
An ombudsman or public advocate is an official, usually appointed by the government or by parliament, but with a significant degree of independence, who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights. In some countries an Inspector General, Citizen Advocate or other official may have duties similar to those of a national ombudsman, and may also be appointed by a legislature. Below the national level an ombudsman may be appointed by a state, local or municipal government. Unofficial ombudsmen may be appointed by, or even work for, a corporation such as a utility supplier, newspaper, NGO, or professional regulatory body.
Omnibus Account
An Omnibus Customer Securities Account is a securities account used by a brokerage firm or its affiliated clearing firm in order to maintain appropriate custody of underlying securities for the purpose of satisfying the custody obligations of the broker-dealer towards its customers.
On Account
On Balance Volume (OBV)
On Stream
On The Run Treasuries
On The Run Treasury Yield Curve
On Track
On Us Item
One Bank Holding Company
One Cancel All Order
One Cancels the Other Order (OCO)
One Child Policy
One Man Picture
One Night Stand Investment
One Percent Rule
One To Many
Outstanding Shares
Shares outstanding are all the shares of a corporation or financial asset that have been authorized, issued and purchased by investors and are held by them. They have rights and represent ownership in the corporation by the person that holds the shares. They are distinguished from treasury shares, which are shares held by the corporation itself and have no exercisable rights. Shares outstanding plus treasury shares together amount to the number of issued shares.
Over the Counter Trading
Over-the-counter or off-exchange trading is done directly between two parties, without any supervision of an exchange. It is contrasted with exchange trading, which occurs via exchanges. A stock exchange has the benefit of facilitating liquidity, mitigates all credit risk concerning the default of one party in the transaction, provides transparency, and maintains the current market price. In an OTC trade, the price is not necessarily published for the public.