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P

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Last Sourced: 2017-08-01
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P

P (named pee /piː/ ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Use in writing systems

In English orthography and most other European languages, ⟨p⟩ represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic; these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with ⟨f⟩, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial ⟨p⟩ are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

Related characters

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.


Additional Resources

  1. International Economics Glossary: P [www-personal.umich.edu]
  2. Economics 001 Principles Of Microeconomics Definition: Quantity ... [faculty.georgetown.edu]
  3. Demand, Supply And Equilibrium Qd = F(p) [cobe.boisestate.edu]
  4. 4-1 Engineering Economics [valpo.edu]
  5. Keynesian Economics I [web.uconn.edu]
  6. Price Elasticity Of Demand [economics.illinoisstate.edu]